Hypothyroidism: symptoms, causes, treatment and remedies (2023)


What is hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism is a condition where there is not enough thyroid hormone in the blood and the metabolism slows down.

Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce and release enough thyroid hormone into the body. This slows down your metabolism, which affects your entire body. Also known as hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism is quite common.

When thyroid levels are very low, it is called myxedema. A very serious condition, myxedema can cause serious symptoms, including:

  • Low body temperature.
  • Anemia.
  • Cardiac arrest.
  • Confusion.
  • come

This severe form of hypothyroidism is life threatening.

Overall, hypothyroidism is a highly treatable disease. It can be controlled with regular medications and check-ups with your doctor.

How's my thyroid?

The thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped organ located at the front of the neck, just below the vocal cords (larynx). Imagine the center of a butterfly's body, centered on your neck, with the wings clasping your windpipe. The main job of the thyroid is to control metabolism. Metabolism is the process the body uses to convert food into energy that the body uses to function. The thyroid gland produces the hormones T4 and T3, which regulate metabolism. These hormones work throughout the body to tell the body's cells how much energy to use. They regulate body temperature and heart rate.

When the thyroid is working properly, it constantly produces hormones, releasing them and then making new hormones to replace what has been used up. Thanks to this, your metabolism and all body systems are under control. The amount of thyroid hormone in the blood is controlled by the pituitary gland, which is located in the middle part of the skull below the brain. When the pituitary senses a deficiency or excess of thyroid hormone, it adjusts its own hormone (thyrotropic hormone or TSH) and sends it to the thyroid to balance the amount.

If the amount of thyroid hormone is too high (hyperthyroidism) or too low (hypothyroidism), the whole body is affected.

Who is affected by hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism can affect people of all ages, genders and ethnicities. This is a common condition, especially in women over the age of 60. Women are generally more likely to develop hypothyroidism later onclimactericthan before in life.

What is the difference between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism?

In hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

The difference between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism is quantity. In hypothyroidism, the thyroid produces very little thyroid hormone. On the other hand, a person with hyperthyroidism has a thyroid gland that produces too much thyroid hormone. Hyperthyroidism is associated with higher levels of thyroid hormone, which speeds up metabolism. When you have hypothyroidism, your metabolism slows down.

Many things are opposed between the two states. If you have hypothyroidism, you may have difficulty dealing with a cold. If you have hyperthyroidism, you may not tolerate heat. They are opposite extremes of thyroid function. Ideally you should be inside. Treatment for both conditions aims to bring thyroid function as close to this average as possible.

Symptoms and causes

What causes hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism can be primary or secondary. The main cause is a condition that directly affects the thyroid gland and causes it to produce low levels of thyroid hormone. A secondary cause is something causing the pituitary gland to fail, which means it can't send thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) to the thyroid to balance thyroid hormones.

Primary causes of hypothyroidism are much more common. The most common of these root causes is an autoimmune disease called Hashimoto's disease. Also called Hashimoto's thyroiditis or chronic lymphoid thyroiditis, this condition is hereditary (passed down through the family). In Hashimoto's disease, the body's immune system attacks and damages the thyroid gland. This prevents the thyroid from producing and releasing enough thyroid hormone.

Other primary causes of hypothyroidism may include:

  • Thyroiditis(thyroiditis).
  • Treatmenthyperthyroidism(irradiation and surgical removal of the thyroid gland).
  • Iodine deficiency (lack of iodine - a mineral that the thyroid gland uses to make hormones - in your body).
  • Hereditary diseases (a disease that is passed down from generation to generation).

In some cases, thyroiditis can occur after pregnancy (postpartum thyroiditis) or viral disease.

What causes hypothyroidism during pregnancy?

Most women suffer from hypothyroidism during pregnancyChoroba Hashimoto. This autoimmune disease causes the body's immune system to attack and damage the thyroid gland. When this happens, the thyroid gland cannot produce and release enough thyroid hormone that affects the entire body. Pregnant women with hypothyroidism may feel very tired, have difficulty dealing with cold temperatures, and experience muscle cramps.

Thyroid hormones are important for fetal development. These hormones support the development of the brain and nervous system. If you have hypothyroidism, it's important to monitor your thyroid levels during pregnancy. If the fetus does not receive enough thyroid hormone during development, the brain may not develop properly and problems may arise later. Untreated or improperly treated hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to complications such as miscarriage or premature birth.

Will contraception affect my thyroid?

when you are onbirth control pills, estrogen and progesterone in the pill can affect thyroid binding proteins. It raises your level. If you have hypothyroidism, you should increase the dose of your medications while taking birth control pills. After discontinuation of contraceptive pills, the dose should be reduced.

Can hypothyroidism cause erectile dysfunction?

In some cases, there may be a link between untreated hypothyroidism and hypothyroidismerectile dysfunction. When your hypothyroidism is caused by a pituitary gland problem, you may also have low testosterone levels. Treating hypothyroidism can often help with erectile dysfunction if it is directly caused by a hormonal imbalance.

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?

Symptoms of hypothyroidism usually develop slowly over time - sometimes over years. These can be:

  • feel tired (tiredness).
  • You feel numbness and tingling in your hands.
  • Constipation.
  • Gaining weight.
  • You feel pain all over your body (may include muscle weakness).
  • Have a higher than normal blood cholesterol level.
  • I have depression.
  • I can't stand low temperatures.
  • to havedry, rough skinand her.
  • Feeling less interested in sex.
  • regularheavy menstruation.
  • Noticing physical changes on the face (e.gwith lowered eyelidand swelling of the eyes and face).
  • Your voice gets lower and hoarse.
  • You feel more forgetful (“brain fog”).

Will I gain weight because of hypothyroidism?

If hypothyroidism is left untreated, you may gain weight. Once your condition is treated, your weight should start to come off. However, you still need to watch your calories andexercise to lose weight. Talk to your doctor about losing weight and how to develop a diet that works for you.

Diagnosis and testing

How is hypothyroidism diagnosed?

Hypothyroidism can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms can easily be confused with other conditions. If you have any of the symptoms of hypothyroidism, talk to your doctor. The main way to diagnose hypothyroidism is the so-called blood testThyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) test.. Your doctor may also order blood tests for conditions such as Hashimoto's disease. If the thyroid gland is enlarged, the doctor can feel it during a physical examination during the visit.

Management and treatment

How is hypothyroidism treated?

In most cases, hypothyroidism is treated by replenishing the amount of hormone that the thyroid gland has stopped producing. This is usually done with medication. One commonly used drug is levothyroxine. Taken by mouth, this drug increases the amount of thyroid hormone your body produces, balancing its levels.

Hypothyroidism is a disease that can be controlled. However, you will need to take medication continuously for the rest of your life to normalize the amount of hormones in your body. With careful treatment and follow-up visits with your doctor to make sure your treatment is working properly, you can lead a normal and healthy life.

What Happens If Hypothyroidism Is Not Treated?

Hypothyroidism can become a serious and life-threatening condition if left untreated by a doctor. If left untreated, symptoms may worsen and may include:

  • Developing psychological problems.
  • You have trouble breathing.
  • Inability to maintain normal body temperature.
  • Have heart problems.
  • Developing onewole(thyroid enlargement).

You can also develop a serious medical condition called myxedema coma. This can happen when hypothyroidism is left untreated.

Will I take the same dose of hypothyroid medication for the rest of my life?

The dose of your medication may even change over time. At different times in your life, you may need to adjust the amount of medication to control your symptoms. This can happen due to things like weight gain or weight loss. Your levels will need to be monitored throughout your life to make sure your medications are working properly.

Care at the Cleveland Clinic

  • Treatment of thyroid disorders
  • Find a doctor and specialist
  • Organise a meeting


Can hypothyroidism be prevented?

Hypothyroidism cannot be prevented. The best way to avoid developing a serious form of the disease or having symptoms seriously affect your life is to keep an eye on the symptoms of hypothyroidism. If you are experiencing any of the symptoms of hypothyroidism, it is best to talk to your doctor. Hypothyroidism is easily controlled if you catch it early and start treating it.


Are there foods I can eat to help with hypothyroidism?

Most foods in the Western diet contain iodine, so you don't have to worry about your diet. Iodine is a mineral that helps the thyroid gland produce hormones. One idea is that if you have low thyroid hormone levels, eating iodine-rich foods can help boost your hormone levels. The most reliable way to increase the level of hormones is medication prescribed by a doctor. Do not try any new diets without consulting your doctor first. It's important to always talk before starting a new diet, especially if you have a medical condition such as hypothyroidism.

Foods rich in iodine include:

  • Eggs.
  • Dairy.
  • Meat, poultry and seafood.
  • Edible seaweed.
  • Iodized zone.

Work with your doctor or dietitian (health care professional who specializes in nutrition) to create a meal plan. Your food is your fuel. By making sure you eat foods that help your body, along with taking your medications as directed by your doctor, you can stay healthy over time. People with thyroid diseases should not consume large amounts of iodine, as the effect can be paradoxical (contradictory).

Can hypothyroidism go away on its own?

In some mild cases, you may not have any symptoms of hypothyroidism or your symptoms may go away over time. In other cases, the symptoms of hypothyroidism go away soon after starting treatment. In people with particularly low levels of thyroid hormones, hypothyroidism is a lifelong condition that requires regular medication treatment.


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